About Bosnien and Herzegowina

Bosnia and Herzegovina; Also called BiH, Bosnia-Herzegovina or only Bosnia, is a South-East European state. The state area is located east of the Adriatic Sea and is almost completely in the Dinaric mountains. Neighboring countries are in the north and west of Croatia, in the east Serbia and Montenegro in the southeast. The Bosnian population in 2013 was a good 3.5 million. The capital and largest city in the country is Sarajevo, and other large cities are Banja Luka, Tuzla, Zenica, Bijeljina and Mostar.


The State, in its current form, was the result of the Dayton Agreement (1995), which, according to this successor of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, was established immediately after a referendum in early 1992 and during the Bosnian war, Territory of Bosnia-Herzegovina. The Treaty of Dayton ended the war in the country and created a uniform, but strongly decentralized (federal) state. Today, Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of the two entities Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia and Herzegovina mostly populated by Bosniaks and Bosnian Croats) and Republika Srpska (mostly populated by Bosnian Serbs). The special administrative area Brčko was subsequently created from the shares of the pre-war commune of Brčko, which is part of both entities, and now functions as a condominium of both entities, but manages independently. A total of three countries are bordered by Bosnia and Herzegovina. In the east of Serbia, in south-east Montenegro, as well as in the north, west and south-west Croatia. Furthermore, the state has a 20-kilometer-long coastal strip on the Adriatic coast at Neum in the Neum Corridor. Bosnia and Herzegovina is a member of the Central European Free Trade Agreement, the United Nations, the Organization for Islamic Cooperation (Observer Status), the Council of Europe, participants in the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe and the Cooperation Council for South Eastern Europe. Furthermore, since 2010 the country has been an official candidate for NATO membership and a potential candidate for membership of the European Union.


Bosnia and Herzegovina lies in the transitional area between Mediterranean and continental climate.


The citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina are called Bosnians. This refers to Bosniaks and Croats as well as Serbs who live in Bosnia and Herzegovina. On the other hand, the term "Bosniak" refers exclusively to Bosnian Muslims. All are among the "three constituent peoples" of the country and are officially equal.

The census of 2013 accounted for 50.1 per cent Bosniaks, 30.8 per cent Serbs (mostly Orthodox) and 15.4 per cent Croatians (mostly Catholics). [4] The rest of the population belongs either to one of the 17 officially recognized minorities such as Roma and Jews [12], or gave no ethnic classification. The ethnicity of the Bosnians is mainly based on their religious affiliation and the related cultural differences. There is no language separation within Bosnia, since all ethnic groups speak ijekavish-neuštokavic dialects of Serbo-Croatian. Since the Yugoslavian wars, however, they have generally referred to their language as Bosnian, Croatian, or Serbian, and use the corresponding literary standard.

Tourism, sightseeing

  • Stari most (Bridge of Mostar), UNESCO world heritage
  • Stari most and Višegradu (Bridge of Višegrad), UNESCO world heritage
  • Vrelo Bune (Buna Source), one of the strongest and largest springs in Europe
  • Jajce, with castle, 17 meter high waterfall and the Plivalakes
  • Kravice vodopad (Kravica waterfalls), standing under nature protection
  • Međugorje (interstices), world famous pilgrimage site
  • Bosanske piramide (Pyramids of Bosnia), pyramid-like mountains
  • Nacionalni park Kozara (National Park Kozara), monument to the victims of the Battle of Kozara in the Second World War
  • Nacionalni park Sutjeska (Sutjeska National Park): one of the last two virgin forests in Europe (Perućica), the highest peak of the country (Maglić), the 75 meter high waterfall Skakavac and the gorge of Sutjeska.
  • Hutovo Blato, largest natural reserve for swamp birds in Europe

There are also the fortress walls of Počitelj, the medieval castle of Travnik, the fortification and the amphitheater of Banja Luka, the lakes Blidinjsko jezero, Prokoško jezero and Šatorsko jezero, numerous medieval tombstones (Stećci), especially in Herzegovina, rafting The Neretva, Una and Drina rivers, the Adriatic coastal town of Neum with the country's highest average annual temperature and the memorial in Potočari, dedicated to the victims of the massacre of Srebrenica, by the US President Bill Clinton

There are numerous sights in Sarajevo and its surroundings. The Latin Bridge, for example, was the starting point of the First World War, since the assassination attempt against Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife was carried out here. The Bosmal City Center (118 m) and the Avaz Twist Tower (142 m) were completed in 2001 and 2009 respectively and are currently the tallest buildings on the Balkan Peninsula. The whole old town of Baščaršija with the Turkish water fountain Sebilj and the Vijećnica, the old town hall, are also worth seeing. In addition, there are many magnificent historical mosques in the city (eg Gazi Husrev Beg Mosque, the largest historical mosque in the country) and church buildings. In the vicinity there are also the winter sport areas Bjelašnica and Jahorina, where also the Olympic Winter Games 1984 were carried out. The Sarajevski ratni tunel (Sarajevo Tunnel), the Historijski muzej Bosne i Hercegovine (the Historical Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina), the "Roses of Sarajevo" and the still numerous demolitions and bullet holes in buildings are reminiscent of the siege of the city during the Bosnian war , Mainly on the outskirts of the city. The city also offers other museums devoted to the historical reconstruction of the city and the whole country. These include, for example, the National Museum and the Museum of Sarajevo.